About Examination

  I don't remember how many examinations I've taken since I began my schooling. To tell the truth, I don't like examinations at all. I dare say that, in fact, no student likes examinations.
  We often hear people say “Examinations are teachers' magic weapon”, so most of us may think it is our teachers who give us students so many examinations. But I don't think so. Almost all of them have once been students before they became teachers. We don't like examinations, and neither do our teachers, which may be reasonably concluded. What's more, the more examinations we take, the more time will be taken from our teachers and the more trouble our teachers have to take.
  It is the system in our country, I think, that gives us students so many examinations. If there were no entrance examinations, and all the students could go up to the higher grades without competition, there would not be so many examinations in primary and middle schools. So it is important and necessary to reform the test system. Only in this way can examinations be greatly reduced, and then all the students will be happier.


  (1) 不同观点列举型( 选择型 )
  There is a widespread concern over the issue that __作文题目_____. But it is well known that the opinion concerning this hot topic
  varies from person to person. A majority of people think that _ 观点一________. In their views there are 2 factors contributing to this attitude
  as follows: in the first place, ___原因一_______.Furthermore, in the second place, ___原因二_____. So it goes without saying that ___观点一_____.
  People, however, differ in their opinions on this matter.
  Some people hold the idea that ___观点二_______. In their point of view, on the one hand, ___原因一_______.  On the other hand, ____原因二_____. Therefore, there is no
  doubt that ___观点二______.
  As far as I am concerned, I firmly support the view that __观点一
  或二______. It is not only because ________, but also because _________. The more
  _______, the more ________.
  Nowadays, there is a widespread concern over (the issue that)___作文题目______. In fact, there are both advantages and disadvantages in __题目议题_____. Generally speaking, it is widely believed there are several positive
  aspects as follows. Firstly, ___优点一______.  And secondly ___优点二_____.
  Just As a popular saying goes, "every coin has two sides", __讨论议题______ is no exception, and in another word, it still has negative aspects. To
  begin with, ___缺点一______. In addition,  ____缺点二______.
  To sum up, we should try to bring the advantages of __讨论议题____ into full play, and reduce the disadvantages to the minimum at the same
  time. In that case, we will definitely make a better use of the ____讨论议题___.
  ( 3 ) 答题性议论文
  Currently, there is a widespread concern over (the issue that)__作文题目_______ .It is really an important concern to every one of us. As a result, we
  must spare no efforts to take some measures to solve this problem.
  As we know that there are many steps which can be taken to undo this
  problem. First of all, __途径一______. In addition, another way contributing to success of the solving
  problem is ___途径二_____.
  Above all, to solve the problem of ___作文题目______, we should find a number of various ways. But as far as I am
  concerned, I would prefer to solve the problem in this way, that is to say,
  ( 4 ) 谚语警句性议论文
  It is well know to us that the proverb: " ___谚语_______" has a profound significance and value not only in our job but also
  in our study. It means ____谚语的含义_______. The saying can be illustrated through a series of examples as
  follows. ( also theoretically )
  A case in point is ___例子一______. Therefore, it is goes without saying that it is of great of importance
  to practice the proverb ____谚语_____.
  With the rapid development of science and technology in China, an
  increasing number of people come to realize that it is also of practical use
  to stick to the saying: ____谚语_____. The more we are aware of the significance of this famous saying,
  the more benefits we will get in our daily study and job.


  1) 开头段的作用
  2) 写开头段时考生应该避免的若干问题
  ① 开头偏离主题太远;
  ② 使用抱歉或埋怨之词句;
  ③ 内容不具体,言之无物;
  ④ 使用不言自明的陈述。
  3) 开头段的使用方法
  ① 使用引语
  ② 使用具体详实的数字或数据
  ③ 提出问题
  ④ 给出背景
  ⑤ 定义法
  ⑥ 主题句法



  The politics of protest

  Pierre Bourdieu has become a leading figure in the radical movements that have swept France in the last few years. He talked to Kevin Ovenden about anti-capitalism and resistance
  The Weight of the World was recently published in Britain. It describes through interviews in the early 1990s the 'social suffering of contemporary society'. Why is life getting harder for most people?
  There are similarities between what has happened to people's lives in France and in Britain. The main issue, of course, is neo-liberalism and what I call the retreat of the state. The state has abandoned a lot of areas that it was involved in, such as healthcare, education, and social provision.
  When we conducted this study it was only beginning. Now it is far worse. So for example, in France neo-liberal philosophy has become embedded in all the social practices and policies of the state. It has become internalised in the minds of the political establishment. The minister of education who was recently forced out of office, Claude All鑗re, was very similar to the one you have in Britain. He introduced into education so called 'tough policies'--a drive for efficiency and productivity.
  Instead of looking very carefully at how education works, the neo-liberals opt for a very simple solution. They create competition between schools and between the directors of schools, who have to compete for budgets and for students. This competition is fake--it is artificially constructed. It does not arise spontaneously from the way the education system works. The education system was not perfect. I was very critical of it. But instead of correcting it and providing the means to better it, they destroy it by introducing this capitalistic vision of education.
  One could say the same about healthcare. I recently read a record of a meeting between a group of professors of medicine who are traditionally very conservative. They went to meet prime minister Jospin. He did not receive them. A technocrat met them instead. The transcript of the discussion is terrible. The people say, 'Look, I never demonstrated or participated in any strike or protest movement. But for the first time I am forced to speak out on behalf of my patients.' One gave an example of a 73 year old woman who had cancer, but her medicine was too expensive for the hospital's budget. Another said that his hospital does not have the money to pay anaesthetists, so there are no anaesthetists at night. He asked the technocrat, 'Would you send your wife to such a hospital?' He replies, 'That's a personal question which I will not answer.'
  We are seeing a blind and chaotic response to the problems of public institutions. We have had a very hierarchical system in healthcare for many years. But after 1968 younger people tried to change it. They tried to make the system more collective and introduce the idea of working as part of a team. Now that is being destroyed because they work under the threat of cuts and demands for greater productivity.
  Centre-left parties are in government across most of Europe. They are presiding over these neo-liberal policies. Do you see anything new in the way social democratic parties are governing?
  I am very sceptical about the idea that there is this new approach called the Third Way or the Neue Mitte. We have, to varying degrees across the continent, basically neo-liberal policies dressed up with talk of a new form of politics which is not terribly new at all. So we find social democratic rhetoric being deployed to destroy the social democratic policies which grew up in the period after the Second World War.
  In France many of those pushing this offensive hail from the 1968 generation. They became radicalised then, but now are incorporated into the system. The failure of the Mitterrand years generated a backlash against the French Socialist Party. Of course, the great revolt of December 1995 ushered in a wave of social movements which brought the Socialists back into power.
  But the aim of the government and its technocrats is to curtail and destroy those movements. Ministers and advisers use their prestige and experience from 1968 against the movements.
  When students occupied the ole Normale Supieur, the government figure arguing to send the police in firmly and swiftly had himself taken part in the occupations of 1968.
  People in Germany and in Britain often tell me that it must be wonderful to live in France with the 35 hour week and other reforms. But those gains are a result of the pressure of the movements. They are not freely given by the government. The left government believes it can be more successful than the right in controlling those movements.
  How do your sociological ideas influence your political stance? You developed your ideas when structuralism was the main influence on French intellectuals.
  I was not a structuralist. That approach saw the world as composed of structures which strictly determine the way people act. There was no scope for human agency. As the structuralist Marxist Louis Althusser said in the 1960s, human beings were merely the 'unconscious bearers of objective structures'. The results of my anthropological work in Algeria in the 1950s did not fit into this structuralist framework.
  Of course people are structured by society. They are not, as free market theory holds, isolated individuals each deciding a course of action by making individual economic calculations. I developed the concept of 'habitus' to incorporate the objective structures of society and the subjective role of agents within it.
  The habitus is a set of dispositions, reflexes and forms of behaviour people acquire through acting in society. It reflects the different positions people have in society, for example, whether they are brought up in a middle class environment or in a working class suburb.
  It is part of how society reproduces itself. But there is also change. Conflict is built into society. People can find that their expectations and ways of living are suddenly out of step with the new social position they find themselves in. This is happening in France today. Then the question of social agency and political intervention becomes very important.
  The heart of Marxism is the struggle by the working class for its own emancipation. Where do you place the struggles of the working class within the spectrum of the social movements you are involved in?
  Seattle brought together organised labour and various single-issue campaigns. They were often mobilised on different political bases, but they influenced one another. That is new. For the first time we have the possibility of aggregating these kinds of people who were very suspicious of one another.
  In France we have this tradition of workerism which is anti-intellectual. The unions are very hostile to intellectuals and the intellectuals are very distant from workers. In 1968 it was very visible. Now for the first time because of the failure of Soviet Marxism we are free from that. So I can speak with a CGT official as I am speaking to you. They are very open. In a sense intellectuals like me did not exist 20 years ago. People like Sartre and Foucault were sympathetic to the movement, but they did not have much empirical knowledge of workers.
  Seattle is very important in showing how new forces are developing. The small farmers' leader Jos?Bov?is well informed. He expresses himself clearly without the oversimplification which you hear from politicians. He is an intellectual. But at the same time he works on his farm.
  I recently organised a meeting of all the leaders of the social movements in France--the unemployed, the sans papiers immigrants, some trade unionists. You had anarchists, Trotskyists, Marxists--all types. The discussion was at a level you could not imagine. You can see the revival of a left political culture in the huge sales of Le Monde Diplomatique. Some suspicion still remains among those who are working together, of course. But at the end of the meeting they gave Raisons d'Agir, the group I am involved in, a mandate to issue a charter for a European social movement. We must escape nationalist division and have an international movement to fight against global capital.
  How can the movements generalise and how will the different ideas within them be clarified?
  The way the movement will develop is open. It is a process. We plan to publish an appeal for a European movement against neo-liberalism in May. We are seeking the support of the DGB union federation in Germany, the CGT in France, intellectuals, social movements and many different organisations. There will be a meeting in September of different movements to elaborate this charter. Then we will hold a conference in Athens in March of next year to discuss that and try to create the foundations of a social Europe. We have many ideas, but we must work on them. The aim is to create an intellectual and practical opposition. It is not only intellectuals. One of the most important leaders of one of the main unions in Greece wants to fund the conference. Our mission is to organise and try to help people to communicate.
  There is a division of labour in this developing movement. Social scientists can help to overcome difficulties. If we want an effective social movement at the level of Europe we must overcome that--otherwise we will disappear.
  There are powerful political obstacles between people. The main obstacles come from the social democratic movement. If we succeed in overcoming these it will lead to a genuine Third Way which will be much more radical. We need to build the left of the left. In the ecology movement you have people who are really on the left--even among the Communist Party, which has had a deadening effect on the left in France.
  Many people are coming to realise that globalisation is more of a political imperative than an economic fact. Three quarters of the exchange of goods in Europe is internal to Europe. The social democratic parties in power could implement policies to limit the free market.
  How will we force them? Will we require a new political party?
  I don't know. It would be nice if we could force them, but I am not sure if we can. It seems to me there is a crisis of the social democratic governments. In Britain the crisis of Blairism has well and truly started. There is also the crisis of the right wing parties in much of Europe, particularly the CDU in Germany. The true left has always faced a false choice: you vote for the right or you accept this fake left wing. We have had the same problem in France since 1981.
  Forces other than the left are trying to gain a hearing. So we see the Haider phenomenon in Austria. But he has not gone unchallenged. The recreation of a true left wing movement will be the main instrument of the destruction of Haider. Nobody spoke about Le Pen and the National Front in France during the hot winter of 1995 in France. The mass movement in defence of pensions in Italy also marginalised the far right.
  Whether the revival of the left will lead to a new party is an open question. So too is how ideas will be clarified. The main thing is to build the movement. No one should doubt the radical changes that are happening in the way people think. I am more optimistic about the future than at any time in the last three decades, despite the seeming triumph of global capitalism.



  Score is not Equal to Knowledge

  “Score is not equal to knowledge,” my head teacher always keeps telling me this, because he wants us to master all the knowledge we need to understand. I do not put his word in mind, because in my heart, score comes the first. One day, chemistry teacher taught us some knowledge and then asked us to finish a paper test. Whoever passed the text can do the experiment. I got a high mark by guessing. I was very happy, but tragedy happened. I made a small explosion by not mastering the knowledge. I was scared and finally understood the sentence,” Score is not Equal to Knowledge.”




  Happinemeans different things to different people. For example, some students believe that if they have much money or a large number of possessions, they will be happy. They believe that they will be able to do anything they want to if they have money. Some students think that they should be in good health, and enjoy whatever they like. Many students wish to have much wealth from their parents. In this way they don’t have to work hard, and they can have everything. I don’t agree with the above points. We can’t buy many important things with money, such as health, happineand knowledge. I value knowledge, which makes me happy, for I can do much for mankind with knowledge. Although different people value happinedifferently, my “wealth” of happineis in my study.


  The arguer may be right about …, but he seems to neglect (fail) to mention (take into account) that fact that…
  As opposed to (Contrary to) widely (commonly/generally) held (accepted) belief (ideas/views), I believe (argue that…
  Although many people believe that …, I doubt (wonder) whether the argument bears much analysis (close examination).
  The advantages of B outweigh any benefit we gained from (carry more weight than those of / are much greater than) A.
  Although it is commonly (widely / generally) held (felt / accepted / agreed) that …, it is unlikely to be true that…
  There is an element of truth in this argument (statement), but it ignores a deeper and more basic (important / essential) fact (reason) that…
  It is true that (True, / To be sure, / Admittedly,)…, but this is not to say (it is unlikely / it doesn’t follow / it doesn’t mean / it won’t be the case) that…
  The main (obvious / great) problem (flaw / drawback) with (in) this argument (view / remark) is that it is ignorant of (blind to) the basic (bare) fact that …
  It would be possible (natural / reasonable) to think (believe / take the view) that…, but it would be absurd (wrong) to claim (argue) that …
  In all the discussion and debate over…, one important (basic) fact is generally overlooked (neglected).
  There is absolutely (in fact) no (every) reason for us to believe (accept / resist / reject) that…
  Logical (Valid / Sound) as this argument and I wholeheartedly agree with it, it appears insignificant (absurd) when … is taken into consideration (account).
  To assume (suggest) that … is far from being proved (to miss the point).
  A close (careful) inspection (examination / scrutiny) of this argument would reveal how flimsy (groundless / fallacious) it is.
  On the surface (At first thought), it (this) may seem a sound (an attractive) suggestion (solution / idea), but careful weighing on the mind (on closer analysis / on second thought), we find that…
  Too much emphasis placed on (attention paid to / importance attached to) … may obscure (overlook / neglect) other facts…
  The danger (problem / fact / truth / point) is that…
  What the arguer fails to understand (consider /mention) is that…
  We don’t have to look very far to see (find out) the truth (validity) of this argument (proposition).
  However just (logical / sound / valid) this argument may be, it only skims the surface of the problem.



  tutorial center is helpful.

  i have studied at a tutorial center for two years. my command of english has improved considerably since i started this course.
  at my center, the fees are reasonable. my tutors are qualified teachers. i have been helped a lot by them. they are sincere and kind.
  one of my teachers was british. at first, i could not say anything to her. but later i learned how to communicate in english with a westerner.
  i think that the tutorial center has given me a lot of confidence in using english.


  As is known to all, it is important to be/ do… I think there are at least two reasons for… For one thing,… For another,…. Let’s take… for example… From what I have mentioned above we can see that without… we can not … it is clear that…. play an important part in…
  Different people, however, have different opinions on this matters. Some people think that … According to them all of us should… Others argue that … in their point of view, nobody can without … Compared with…, has a lot of advantages over… There is no doubt that … As a consequence, ….
  In short, I firmly support the view that … It is because… So my conclusion is that ….(109words)
  1. 对立观点式:
  A.有人认为X 是好事,赞成X, 为什么?
  B.有人认为X 是坏事, 反对X,为什么?
  C.我的看法。 Some people are in favor of the idea of doing X. They point out the fact that 支持X 的第一个原因。They also argue that 支持X 的另一个原因。 However, other people stand on a different ground. They consider it harmful to do X. They firmly point out that 反对X 的第一个理由。An example can give the details of this argument: 一个例子。 There is some truth in both arguments. But I think the advantages of X overweigh the disadvantages. In addition to the above-mentioned negative effects it might bring about, X also may X 的一个坏处。 2. 批驳观点式: A.一个错误观点。 B.我不同意。 Many people argue that 错误观点。By saying that, they mean 对这个观点的进一步解释。An example they have presented is that 一个例子。(According to a survey performed by X on a group of Y, almost 80% of them 赞成这个错误观点或者受到这个错误观点的影响)。 There might be some element of truth in these people's belief. But if we consider it in depth, we will feel no reservation to conclude that 与错误观点相反的观点。There are a number of reasons behind my belief.(以下参照辩论文的议论文写法)。 3. 社会问题(现象)式 A.一个社会问题或者现象。 B.产生的原因 C.对社会和我们生活的影响 D. 如何杜绝。(如果是问题的话) E. 前景的预测。 Nowadays, there exists an increasingly serious social/economic/environmental problem. (X has increasingly become a common concern of the public). According to a survey, 调查内容说明这种现象的情况。(或者是一个例子) There are a couple of reasons booming this problem/phenomenon. 下面参照辩论式议论文的写法。 X has caused substantial impact on the society and our daily life, which has been articulated in the following aspects. 参照辩论式议论文的写法。 A dozen of measures are supposed to take to prevent X from bringing us more harm. 参照辩论式议论文的写法。 Based on the above discussions, I can easily forecast that more and more people will...
  议论文有三要点:论点、论据、论证方法。论点:作者对某事某现象持有的见解或主张。论据:1.事实论据 2.理论论据 用来证明论点的理由或根据。论证方法:对比 归纳 演绎等......


  Version 00106
  Although it is a freedom to use tobacco(烟草)while some people think it should be made illegal as the same way as other drugs. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  What's your opinion?
  Version 00107
  Some people believe that students who want to go to university after graduation from high school should have about one year's time to get a job to obtain work experience or have a travel to enlarge their vision.what are the advantages and disadvantages regarding it and what is your opinion?
  Version 00108
  Some people said the government shouldn't put money on building theaters and sports stadiums; they should spend more money on medical care and education. Agree or not agree?
  Version 00109
  The computer are widely used in education and some people think teacher are not play important role in the classroom . to what extend do you agree?(agree/disagree)
  Version 00110
  What is the reason for losing a variety of language and culture?(分析原因型)