英语论文范文

01
  惠特曼的《草叶集》的女性主义解读

  Research on Feminism in Watl Whitman Leaves of Grass 惠特曼的《草叶集》的女性主义解读

  1. Signifiance of this study

  This paper aims to research the famous writer -- Whitman from another perspective—a feminist approach. The author may realize that Whitman is a feminist http://www.51lunwen.com/foreignliterature/ and his work reflects his female readers. Feminist is the most subject of “Leaves of Grass”. The previous researches on Whitman is mainly focused on ego, sex image and democracy, there are less researches from feminist point of view. So this paper is to fill in the blank in the theory, as well as to prove Whitman is a feminist poet.

  2. Theory and practice value of this study

  Whitman sings praise to democracy and freedom, reflecting the American people who desire to democracy, he praises people's creative labor, gives a person with positive spirit. As for the formation of the work characteristics of Whitman, lots of researchers think he is influenced by the literary sages. Longfellow has a great influence on Whitman literary creation. In the Whitman eyes, Longfellow’s poetry gives the birth of the literature mark and plays in the United States on the first century, Whitman definitely refers to Longfellow's poetry achievements and contributions to the people of America. If, Longfellow does not represent the traditional English poetry in the United States, this land has no such impact, Whitman neither won’t succeed. Whitman always directly or indirectly absorbs their nutrition, making himself grow up for a tree, and finally forms his own independent school and tradition. The United States is a young country, different ethnic or religious persecution or avoid for wealth away from his native moved to the new world, the history of the American cultural diversity and the American people dare to abandon innovative spirit. Their lives and culture in total have a kind of chased by the tendency of the new vision habit. After the new vision by wont americans but again especially love to traditional socialist poet of Longfellow, which is the reason for he mainly regards to New England as the theme of the life of the ordinary people with New England daily oral English writing; Secondly, his works are in the artistic conception, contents full of exquisite life and deep feeling left the thinking and imagination space; Thirdly, his works reflect the first half of the nineteenth century American life and the thoughts and feelings of the American people. Longfellow's literary works not only reflect deeply American readers love and spread its literary achievements but also on the behind the creation of the writers. Whitman sings praise to democracy and freedom, reflects the American people whodesire to democracy, he praises people's creative labor, gives a person with positive spirit. Prachanda Rice thinks "one of some scholars put too much emphasis on Emerson to Whitman, while the effect of obvious underestimated, even ignoring the other American writers and English literatures’ influence of the traditional Whitman and Whitman creation; the second is to the contrary, some scholars are tempted to will Whitman and British and American literature tradition completely apart, think Whitman is like Adam, from ancient times and countries for inspiration, the intelligence and energy to the original works, so his poetry has a refreshing original." General Rice considers that the two kinds of views toward the two extremes, its essence is simple to understand the Whitman as a poet of the development process. While there is less research on Whitman’s feminist, so this study aims to fill in the blank of the study.

  3. Research method

  Literature review is the main method. In this literature survey, the resources are mainly focus on the existing observable online Journal articles, books and some relevant document from website. And because of the limited time, the materials used are based on famous journals. These journals are recorded from 1983 to present, publishes academic papers advance the practical and theoretical knowledge of Walt Whitman. The search aim of this literature is to find the existing researches of Walt Whitman.

  4. Outline

  1. Introduction

  1.1 Research significance

  1.2 Literature view

  1.3 Research Method

  1.4 Summary of Walt Whitman and Leaves of Grass

  2. Sex in “Leaves of Grass”

  2.1 Openness of sex

  2.2 Necessity of sex for both men and women

  2.3 Homosexulity

  2.4 Sexual politics

  3. Gender

  3.1 Democracy for female

  3.2 Free Gender

  4. Women’s roles Embodied in “Leaves of Grass”

  4.1 Whitman and women’s rights activity

  4.2 Support women’s rights movement

  4.3 Women’s view on marriage

  5. Conclusion

  6. References

  A Whitman Chronology, by JoatmP.Krieg,University of lowa Press,Iowa City,1998

  A Collective of critical Essays,Edited by Roy Harvey pearce,Prentic-Hall,Inc.,Englewood cliffs,N.J.1962

  Leaves Of Crrass,Edited by Sculley Bradley,W:W:Norton&Company,New York.’London 1973

  Whitman the Political poet, by Betsy Erkkila’Oxford University Press 1989

  Walt Whitman's Native Representations,Edited by Eric Sundquist,Cambridge University Press'1994

  Alearo,MarionWalker.Walt Whitman§Mrs.G.Fai!eigh Dickinson University Press,1991.

  Allen,Gay Wilson and Davis,Charles T.,ed。Walt Whitman Poems.New York:New York University Press,1955.

  Bradley,.Sculley.Leaves of Grass.New York&London:W.W.Norton&Company,1973.

  Eagleton,Mary.Working With Feminist Criticism,Oxford:Blackwell PUblishers Ltd.,1996.

  Erkkila,Betsy.Whitman the PoliticalPoet.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1989.

  Greenspan,Ezra.Walt Whitman.Shanghai:Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press,1995.

  Killingsworth,M.Jimmie.Whitman Poetry of the Body:Sexuality,Politics,and the Text.Chapel Hill:University of North Carolina Press,1989.

  Krieg,Joann P.A Whitman Chronology.Iowa City:University ofIowa Press,1998.

  Kummings,Donald D.Approaches to http://www.51lunwen.com/foreignliterature/ Teaching Whitman's Leaves of Grass.New York:The Modem Language Association ofAmerica,1990.

英语毕业论文范文

02
  “英语专业语言技能培养与英美文学教学”

  The relationship of language skill training and British and American literature teaching of English majors in Guizhou province

  Abstract: British and American literature teaching is the one of the compulsory courses of English professional high grade, is the key of students' comprehensive language skills training. This article from improving the listening, speaking, reading, writing skills to analyze the importance of knowledge, put forward some suggestions of Guizhou university teachers should combine with the Guizhou English majors' English level in British and American literature teaching .

  Key words: British and American literature; English major in Guizhou; integrated language skills

  摘 要:英美文学教学是英语专业高年级的必修课程之一,对英语专业学生的语言综合技能培养非常关键。本文从提高学生英语听、说、读、写四项技能方面分析英美文学知识的重要性,并提出贵州高校教师在进行英美文学教学时应结合贵州英语专业学生的英语水平进行教学的几点建议。

  关键词:英美文学;贵州英语专业;语言综合技能

  一、 引言

  《高等学校英语专业教学大纲》规定英美文学课是英语专业的必修课程,英美文学课的开设对英语专业学生的语言综合技能培养非常关键。英美文学教学是学生了解英美传统文化、社会、经济体制等背景的重要途径。通过英美文学史和英美文学选读的学习与鉴赏,可以扩大学生对西方文学和文化的了解,提升学生的语言能力、人文素质和文学修养。

  在贵州这样一个多民族的省份,由于经济发展相对滞后,教育水平相对落后,少数民族大学生所占比例较大,加之少数民族特殊的语言文化背景使少数民族学生思想保守,英语语言基础不高、难以接受异域文化,文学功底差,学习兴趣低靡使得英美文学课的教学难度倍增。为了培养高素质的少数民族英语人才,发展贵州,英语教学模式的改进至关重要。因此,从英美文学课入手,培养贵州英语专业学生听说读写综合技能、文化意识及审美情趣是该专业课的最终目标。

  二、 英美文学知识对学生四项综合技能的影响

  语言技能包括语言输入和语言输出两大技能,即,听和读为语言输入技能;说和写为语言输出技能。传统的英语教学都注重这四项技能的培养,而忽视了语言修养、文化意识的培养及文学修养。事实上,语言技能和语言文化、文学修养是交织在一起,互相影响。

  (一) 英美文学的学习促进学生英语听说技能的提高

  英美文学课的教材一般是《英美文学史》、《英美文学作品选读》及《文学批评原理》,教学目的在于培养学生阅读、欣赏、理解、分析英语文学原着的能力。语言知识的获得在一定程度上须借助于看与读,英美文学课所用的教材、教师的讲义都是全英文;加之教学对象为英语专业的学生,英语水平略高于非专业的学生,因此教师的课堂用语几乎都是英语。这样学生上课时不仅要注意力集中地听老师讲课还要做相应的笔记。

  如果教师将学生所记录的英美文学知识笔记作为评定期末考试成绩的一部分,不仅检测了学生听课的情况,而且也迫使学生注意去听,促进了学生听力水平的提高。口语技能是语言输出技能之一,需要积累一定量的语言技能输入。文学作品的内容、词汇丰富,极大地吸引了学生读的兴趣,在阅读的过程中,增加了英语词汇量和积累了口语素材。学生还可以在教师的指引下,进行一系列的教学活动,在课堂上角色扮演英美小说、戏剧等的精彩情节,背诵诗歌,体会诗歌优美的韵律和意象,朗读剧本等。教师对文学作品内容讲解后,学生可对文学作品中的人物、主题在某一种文学批评理论的指导下进行分析,展开讨论。在这样以学生为中心的教学模式下、学生即可了解英语文化、学会对比分析西方文学作品,还可以锻炼英语听说能力,英语理解力和表达能力得到不断提升。

  (二) 英美文学的学习促进学生英语阅读理解能力的提高

  英美文学选读教材选的阅读材料都是英美着名小说家、戏剧作家、诗人的经典作品。学生在课前的预习可以使其了解课文大意,课前预习对作品的基本了解与课上教师的讲解相结合,特别是教师对作家生平、创作风格、社会创作背景的介绍,能激发学生反复阅读该作品的兴趣和热情,增加对文学作品的理解力。尤其是课堂上教师对作品重点段落的讲解可以帮助学生解决语言理解方面存在的问题,学生通过精读重点段落可以准确分析作品中人物性格特点、语言特点以及综合评价作品的叙事技巧和主题思想从而加深对该文学作品的理解,提高理解和思考性的阅读能力。通过课前的泛读和课上的精读,学生不仅对文学作品的内容有了大致的了解,阅读四个层次的能力也得到了发展,即字面阅读能力、推断阅读能力、批判性阅读能力和欣赏性阅读能力得以提升。进而激发了学生阅读英文文学作品的兴趣,运用这四种阅读技巧自觉地加强课外阅读,从而提高英语阅读能力。

  (三) 英美文学课可促进学生英语书面交际能力的提升

  英美文学课不仅可以培养学生高层次的阅读能力,对写作能力的培养也起到推动作用。文学作品是语言艺术的结晶,也是艺术语言的表现,是语言大师千锤百炼的语言。它具有典雅深邃、言简意赅、形象生动的特点,是学生学习和进行模仿写作的最佳模版和语言材料。通过对文学作品的学习、分析、欣赏与模仿,学生可创造出源于生活,反映生活、朴实自然的佳作。英美文学课堂上,教师会引导学生对每一篇文学作品进行分析、欣赏。

  遇到重要语句、短语的搭配和词的修辞用法时,教师不仅对它们进行讲解,还会训练学生对精彩的句子和修辞加以记忆,模仿,帮助学生积累写作的英语词汇和优美的表达方式。教师让学生从文学作品的人物、主题等方面入手写故事梗概、读后感、文学赏析和评论、读书报告等能培养其英语写作思维能力。文学作品的内容也给学生提供了写作素材,学生可以充分发挥独立自主地思考能力进行自由创作。在这样长期坚持不解的学习过程中学生的英语写作水平和英语语言综合运用能力得到提高。

  此外,英美文学课教学中的社会文化背景知识的输入为培养学生的跨文化交际能力奠定了基础。特别是少数民族英语专业学生在英美文学课上的文化习得,可以帮助他们更好地认识本民族文化、汉语文化及西方国家传统文化的差异,增强文化意识,有助于他们在用英语进行写作时对英语语言更好地理解和运用,减少英语写作交际中的障碍,写出地道的英语作文。因此,英美文学课在提升学生英语写作思维能力、创作能力和跨文化交际能力方面有着不可替代的作用。

  三、贵州英语专业英美文学课教学的几点建议

  (一)选择、讲解着名英美文学大师的文学作品

  1.英美文学大师的作品有代表性质和极强的感染力,贵州英语专业学生对之熟悉度偏高,有的学生已经阅读过相关的中文版本,有助于学生理解文学作品中的经典部分,符合贵州学生的英语水平。

  2.教师适当在课堂上介绍文学史和作家流派。每一部文学作品都体现和反映了一个时代的历史特点和社会环境。文学史的介绍可让学生更好地了解文学作品的背景和英美文化。此外,在给学生介绍英美文化知识的同时,列举贵州一些少数民族社会历史文化和汉语文化知识进行对比学习,加深对三种文化的理解和差异认识,有助于培养学生的跨文化交际意识。

  3.根据学生英语水平,教师推荐一些学生感兴趣,时代和文化差异小,可读性和代表性强的作品供学生课外阅读,提高学生的阅读积极性。充分利用多媒体、视频等现代化教学手段,为学生播放根据文学原着改编的电影,让学生分析原着与电影的差异,从而体现文学作品的魅力,加强了英美文学课的生动形象性。

  (二)以学生为主体,教师为指导的教学模式

  “以学生为中心”是英美文学教学中培养语言综合技能的一个重要途径。学生要实现对一篇文学作品的真正理解,就必须主动参与到教学活动中去,即,文学作品的分析、讨论等。教师作为指导学习的人,应注重扩展学生的知识面,组织开展各式各样的教学活动,培养学生的文学鉴赏能力,激发学生的学习兴趣,寓教于乐。

  (三)改进考核方式

  英美文学课教学效果传统的检查方式为闭卷考试,学生往往在期末时死记硬背文学史和英美文学常识以应付一张试卷,这样的考核方式忽略了考查学生分析文学作品的能力和运用英语知识的能力。因此,结合学生平时课堂参与、笔记记录和讨论的情况给出期末的综合测评,学生才会对每一次文学课上的教学活动积极认真的准备和有效地完成,有助于提高学生语言综合技能的能力,保证教学效果。

  四、结语

  英美文学教学和语言技能密切联系。学生的实际交际能力除了取决于语言技能外,还依赖于背景知识能力,即目标语的文化知识的学习。文学作为一种能全面展示社会与文化形态的学科,是语言最完美形式的体现,它优美的行文和富有艺术的表达深深影响着学习者的学习和生活。因此,英语专业教学应重视英美文学教学,增强学生英美文学意识。这不仅可以提高学生语言技能,还可以培养学生的人文素质和文化修养,实现真正意义上的素质教育。英美文学课是学生了解西方文化和文学常识的重要渠道,学生可以借此领悟异域文化的精神,增长文学知识,培养审美情趣。

  参考文献:

  [1]张欢.英语专业教学中语言技能与人文素养的平衡与交叉[J].惠州学院学报(社会科学版),2010,30(02):117-119.

  [2]赵乐.英美文学作品在大学英语教学中的作用[J].科教文汇,2010,09(上旬刊):105-107.

  [3]马秀平,古吉敏,魏朝辉,等.浅谈英美文学知识对大学生英语语言能力的影响[J].中国校外教育,2011,09(下旬刊):109-110.

英语教学论文范文

03
  英语素质教育的教学中,优化课堂教学模式是重点,也是实施素质教育主渠道。然而,要实现优化课堂教学,这就要求我们教师应做到优化教学目标的制定,优化课堂教学的设计,优化教学方法的组合等,通过优化课堂教学模式,以达到实施素质教育的目的。

  1、优化教学目标的制定

  目标教学是构建素质教育的重点,它要求教师必须了解、熟悉、掌握教学内容,明确教学大纲,要求所要达到的教学目标,通过分层教学,因材施教,使目标教学落到实处。可以说,目标教学就是将所有教学内容分解成一个个具体的目标,首先做到完成每课的小目标,尔后完成好单元的部分目标,从而达到完成总目标。教师在上新课前,首先弄清本课的教学目标,教学用书本文来自文秘之音,再分析学生达到这个目标的难点是什么。并根据学生的学习基础,学习习惯、学习方法以及兴趣爱好,反复钻研教材,明确教学目标,确定每课的重点和难点,同时把教学目标及时交给学生,让学生心里有数,从而达到了教有目标,学有目标,指导检查也有目标,使之在课堂上能有的放矢地进行教学,顺利完成制定的教学目标。

  2、优化课堂教学的设计

  李如密在“素质教育与教学改革”一文中提出几个结合:即统一要求与因材施教相结合;教师指导与学会相结合,智力因素与非智力因素相结合;课堂教学与课外活动相结合;传统与现代教学手段相结合。这地我们优化课堂教学的设计是很有启发意义的。课堂教学应努力引导学生从被动接受知识,转为主动探索知识,变“学会”和“会学”。要做到这点必须在培养学生的学习兴趣和动脑、动口、动手上下功夫,让他们主动参与教学活动,以调动他们的学习积极性和主观能动性,形成以学生思维为核心,能力为目标,育人为目的的素质教育教学模式。

  在优化课堂教学设计时,可采用“启发式”、“学导式”教学法。首先,教师要发挥自己的指导作用,做到深入浅出,画龙点睛,一语道破,起到指导作用,以达到“导”在关键上的目的。其次,在学习课前预习,划出难点,带着问题听课时,或学生在自学中遇到了困难,迫切需要教师解难答疑时,教师应及时进行指导,把握好关键时刻,恰到好处,这时学生的思想集中,难全神贯注,认真听讲,可收到最好的效果。当然,除备好课外,教师还应精心设计,分析哪些材料让学生自学;哪些材料由教师精讲;哪些材料用讲练结合形式进行;考虑精讲火候;研究怎样才以讲深讲透,讲得条理分明,深入浅出,使讲解富于启发性。同时要避免教师“抱着走”包办代替,唱独角戏,而应把教学的重点从“教”转移到“学”上,使学生变被动为主动,真正成为教学活动的主体。这样可以培养学生独立学习,和对所学学科本身的兴趣,激发他们的求知的欲望,增强学习信心和主动学习的积极性。尤其在培养学生自己找规律,自己做总结,通过独立思考、开发智力,发现问题、分析问题、解决问题,真正以“主人翁”的身份积极主动地参与教学活动。

  3、优化教学方法的结合

  随着教学观念的更新,英语教学方法也要有所改变,这就要求进一步优化教学方法的组合。课堂上教师采用什么教学方法,学生就往往采用相应的学习方法,它直接影响着的学生的学习效果。为此,教师在课堂教学上应努力以灵活多样的教学方法,精心设计教学过程中的各个环节,围绕学生能力素质的发展进行教学。可采用“知识技能,学习能力,学习态度”来作为确定学习状态的特征变量,从而为促进学习能力素质的全面发展服务。由于教学大纲要求的教学内容本身就是根据知识技能、顺序、结构和学生的初始能力的特点做出安排的,所以可以直接拿来使用,在此基础上,按照知识技能的相对完整性,可将教学知识技能发展序列分成几个教学环节。一般来说,除了第一节课以外,每一课教师所要进行教学的内容不外乎三个部分:①复习已教过的语言材料;②教学新的语言项目如词汇、语音、语法和句型等;③进行各种形式的听、说、读、写训练活动。为此,一般采用“五步教学法”;即:复习、介本文来自文秘之音,查看绍、操练、练习、巩固。在每一个步骤当中,教师的作用都有所不同,如采用口、笔头练习、测试、听写、提问等复习方式;利用实物、图片、借助动作、猜迷、接龙式提问、简笔画等介绍新的语言项目;通过分排或分行、两人、小组等进行操练;通过做游戏、扮演角色等方式提高运用语言能力;充分利用和“复习要点”,练习册中的练习,口、笔头练习等加强学习运用的能力,以加深印象,巩固记忆。教师要在教学中自始至终观察全班学生的反应,要随时根据情况变换自己的角色,保证所教的内容大家都能接受,达到完成课堂的整体教学任务。

  在“五步教学法”中,教师的作用,不仅要随着各个步骤的变换而改变,更重要的要根据学生接受程度和实际教学的需要来优化教学方法的组合。在具体的教学当中,教师不可能按步就班,也不可能始终如一地进行每一个教学步骤。在“吃透”教材,掌握教法的基础上,灵活掌握,因材施教,在师生间形成一个感情融洽,相互尊重,配合默契的氛围,才能顺利进行教学,取得预期的教学效果。

  构建素质教育的教学模式,关键在于教师的自身素质。

  教师是素质教育的实践者和实施者,提高教师自身的素质教育的关键。江泽民同志指出:“创新是一个民族进步的灵魂,是国家兴望发达不竭的动力。知识创新能力的培养和复合型人才的培养。需一支高素质的教师队伍。”在新形势下,作为老师光有埋头苦干的精神是不够的,要不断提高教师自身的素质,要向教学科研要质量,要效益,这是基础教育深化改革的发展的必然趋势,也是实施素质教育对老师的迫切要求。教师要创造性地用好教材,把素质教育渗透于英语教学的全过程,全面提高学生的政治、文化、心理、技能、身体等各种素质,让他们德、智、体、美都得到生动活泼、主动地发展。

  总之,中学英语实施素质教育,是一次面向二十一世纪教育改革的重大问题,如何进一步落实马克思主义关于“人的全面发展”要求和贯彻邓小平关于“三个面向”的指示,还有大量艰苦细致的工作需要我们不断探索和实践。

英语专业毕业论文范文

04
  The language characteristics of unfamiliarity of British and American literature

  The language characteristics of unfamiliarity of British and American literature

  Abstract: This paper firstly analyzes the language model of unfamiliarity, analyzes the unfamiliarity development in British and American literature,put forward the language characteristics of unfamiliarity of British and American literature.

  Key words: British and American literature; unfamiliarity; language characteristics

  摘 要:本文首先进行了陌生化语言模式的解析,分析了英美文学中的陌生化发展,提出了英美文学中的陌生化语言特征。

  关键词:英美文学;陌生化;语言特点

  英美文学的陌生化语言特点分析有利于研究英美后现代主义文学特征,对文学语言的形式研究也十分有利。英美文学中的陌生化语言存在着语言意象的可感性和语言表现的超常性的特点,对文学创作而言是必不可少的形式,有着进一步研究的必要性。

  一、陌生化语言模式解析

  陌生化理论是由俄国形式主义提出的,“陌生化”这个词语最早是1914年什克洛夫斯基在其纲领性的宣言《词的复活》中提出的。“陌生化”能够使人打破“自动化”的束缚,摆脱日常感受的惯常化,它会刺激人们已经麻木的神经,重新唤起人对事物、对世界的新奇感受。例如:蒙蒂科夫的诗歌《放逐?角落》其中的语言“一个人要亲手埋葬多少痛苦,绝望,无奈。隐忍的吞噬多少的无知的毒。才能坚决的长大。成熟,是伴着多少不愿碰触随时会复发的毒。毅然决然的存在这一个宇宙。”这种能够引起与作者同样心理感受,但是并不符合语法运用的语言形式就可以视同为“陌生化”语言。

  陌生化语言的特点包括这样几方面:

  1.总体疏离

  陌生化语言模式的陌生化不是独立体现的,在文学作品之中,往往在与其他语言形式相对立而产生的陌生模式。尤其是在小说之中,陌生化语言所展现的语言力量与小说的整体风格产生疏离感觉,而这种疏离感觉是小说形成优势化特征的关键所在。总体疏离的特征,使得陌生化语言模式形成了现实与虚幻的完整统一,现实与虚幻是一组对立的词语,在后现代者的眼中他们已经打破对立的局面,站在“统一”的语境下。这类的文学作品,其文本中跳动的意象,语言的俏皮与幽默,意蕴的缥缈悠远却又难以隔离现实[1]。

  2.陌生用度

  陌生化语言模式要体现出适当地“陌生化用度”,这一特点重点体现的是“度”,应该保证其运用有一定的范围,不主张通篇运用。因为,恰当地运用各种修辞手法无疑可以实现语言陌生化,增强语言表现力,令人耳目一新,并在进一步的联想想象中获得美感。但不恰当地使用,甚至滥用,则非但于增强文章美感无益,反而会极大地损坏其美感。当然,对于后现代文学作品而言,多数小说都整篇体现出陌生化的感受,与传统小说叙述模式相比更为特立独行,但是就横向对比来讲,陌生化语言的运用体现出更为明确的形式,不是一味地强调通篇地陌生化。

  二、英美文学中的陌生化发展分析

  1.发展过程

  从时间来划分,英美文学的陌生化发展分为三个阶段。

  第一阶段:20世纪20年代之前。这段时期内,英美文学以现实主义文学为主,但是在文学表达方面,除了重视对人物内心刻画之外,也会对田园生活等进行陌生化语言的初步运用。当然,这段时期的陌生化语言运用以简单化的风景描绘为主,语言形式以衬托主体故事风格为主,没有形成独立化的作品形式。

  第二阶段:20世纪20年代——20世纪40年代。这段时间是英美陌生化文学作品的形成阶段,受第一次世界大战的影响,英美文学创作家更深刻地认识到精神世界的空虚和无助,在面对战后的混乱情况,他们再也无法树立生活信心,也无法用语言描绘美好生活和田园景色。因此在残酷的现实面前,只有通过更为虚幻的语言形式来表现内心的空虚和迷乱。因此,这个阶段的陌生化文学作品重点描述人物的主观感受,而不是外部的客观现实。它犹如多棱镜一般折射人的意识领域,使其不断形象化和立体化。它又好象是 X光射线,使读者通过人物的意识屏幕去透视其瞬间的神智活动。同时,这个阶段,陌生化文学理论形成,英美意识流小说家认为:只有把内心世界混乱无序,朦胧的潜意识活动直接显示出来,才能真正揭示其内在的真实。这种创作观点,不可避免地破坏叙述的逻辑性,使叙述更为自由。

  第三阶段:20世纪40年代之后。这段时间是英美陌生化文学作品的发展阶段。随着社会多元化发展的形成,这段时期陌生化语言受到了广泛地认可,英美作家成功地发挥了语言文字的巨大潜力和特殊功能,大胆地运用了与之相适应的生动、鲜明的语言手段如松散无序、残缺不全、长短不一的句法结构,缺乏连贯、不合逻辑、超越语法常规的语言形式,采用时空跳跃、内心独白、自由联想、视角的频繁转换等手法来反映人物意识的跳跃性和随意性[2]。

  2.现实特征

  英美陌生化文学作品的发展虽然以跳跃的语言,极度自由化的叙述模式为主,但是其主体内容仍然是反应现实问题。首先,陌生化文学反映了心理现实。从现实主义的角度来说,可以把它看作是上一世纪传统的继承;从心理描写的手法看,则是创作上的新发展。代写论文 英美陌生化文学作品擅长用传统的现实主义方法描绘动荡的社会现实和小镇的风土人情,又能吸收包括意识流技巧在内的现代派手法,细腻地描绘人物的内心世界,对政治与经济冲击下的大城市市民的生活迅速地作出敏感的反应。其次,英美陌生化文学作品反映了社会现实。英美文学陌生化的特征其实表现出了对对现状的不满,而这也正是改革者的动机,也正是反映了人们对生活抱着更加美好的希望和要求。

  三、英美文学中的陌生化语言特征

  1.语言意象的可感性

  英美文学中的陌生化语言所展现出来的语言意象的可感性,主要是指在阅读作品的过程中,虽然充斥了过多的陌生化语言,但是语言的意象仍然有者读者的心理共鸣感受,能够潜移默化地形成心理认同。例如:英国作家伍尔夫的代表性作《到灯塔去》,其作品的最大意象内容就是“灯塔”。作品分三部分,从第一部分的要去灯塔而未能成行,到第二部分的岁月流失,人是物非,到第三部分的父子二人终于在十年后划船到达了灯塔,精神上也达到了和谐统一。作品所展现出来的“灯塔”意象,有着明显的可感性,在读者的心目中,灯塔就是精神世界的最终追求,每个人心目之中的灯塔都是不同的,虽然如灯光的明暗变化一般存在着悲欢离合,但是也作为一个永恒的背景,象征着时间的永恒与生命的变幻。从这个分析结果可以看出,英美陌生化文学语言虽然使得小说情绪色彩浓重,主题显得神秘隐蔽,但是也存在着明显的语言可感性,能够使得读者活动心理感受的共鸣。

  2.语言表现的超常性

  语言组合的超常性所表现出来的陌生化特征就是其语言具有跳跃性、情感转变有跳跃性、时间叙述有跳跃性。例如:乔伊斯的小说《尤利西斯》。布鲁姆在报社印刷所观看排字工排字,这时他的思绪又无端地飘向死去的父亲和犹太人的历史、宗教和东方故园,随后又跳跃到教堂和丧礼上的歌曲。该段中语言具有与音节旋律相类的节奏感。又如:莫莉早上醒来,看时间早还想再躺会儿,睡意朦胧中意识闪现。莫莉的自由联想与内心独白是自由跳跃的,没有方向秩序。刚想到中国人早上起来要梳理发辫又想到附近教堂的修女和晨祷的钟声,从羡慕无人打扰睡眠的修女到讨厌隔壁闹钟和鸡的打鸣。语言组合的超常性特征使得陌生化的语言具有了跳跃性,使得读者必须在语句之间谋求心灵感受,作品展现出了更为深刻的心理情绪认同,而忽视了作品的故事叙述线索。综上所述,英美文学中的陌生化语言存在着语言意象的可感性和语言表现的超常性的特点,对文学创作而言是必不可少的形式,有着进一步研究的必要性。

  参考文献:

  [1]卜太山.英美后现代主义小说与现代主义小说的关系[J].长城,2011(12).

  [2]叶艳维,胡雅丽.英美文学中的个性化阅读[J].文学界(理论版),2010(05).

商务英语毕业论文范文

05
  Subject:Pay reduction of 5% effective form next month

  Dear Colleagues,

  As you are aware, the recent economy downturn has adversely affected our  company. We have recently had a negative net operating income.We must to be financially responsible and proactive. To that end, I have asked the executive team to review all business goals, objectives and processes in order to find ways to decrease expenses, increase revenue and protect the future well-being of our company.

  In order to increase cash flow and limit layoffs to manage company assets conservatively during this economically challenging time, the executive team has come to a difficult but necessary conclusion. Effective from the next month, all employees will receive a 5% cut to their annual salary. Your current position and duties will remain the same.

  This was an extremely tough decision, and we understand the impact this will have on you and your family. However, please know that we considered several other alternatives, and the choice we made is the best option at this time and will have the least impact on our employees overall. We believe the outcome from this measure will better position the company for a solid financial future.

  During this period, we will continue to monitor the company's financial situation. If the economic situation and the company's performance improves in the next two quarters of the year, your former salary may be restored.

  We appreciate all the hard work www.51lunwen.com/businessenglish/ you have put into your position at this company, and we do not want to lose you as an invaluable employee. Your understanding, support and co-operation to help the this company endure the current economy situation is greatly appreciated. we know we will have your support as we all strive for continued business success. Should you have any questions, please don’t hesitate to speak with your manager or contact human resources.

英语教育论文范文

06
  基于文化融入教学模式的高校商业英语精读教学策略

  1 引言

  商务英语课程里面的精读课程(Intensive Reading)为学生提供了一个商务和英语结合的良好平台。在该课程中,他们既能学到商务相关的应用常识,还能够用英语表达观点和想法。然而,尽管商务专业的综合教学取得了很大的进步,但是商务英语精读课程的教学仍然处于探索阶段。

  事实上,拥有能够熟练进行对外交流的商务英语商贸人才已经成为企业、特别是涉外企业的竞争优势。与此同时,涉外企业对于涉外人员的商务英语能力要求越来越高,既要懂得专业知识,精通英语,还要通晓国际惯例,善于文化交流。这反映了新时期社会对外语+商务人才的新需求。

  2 商务英语精读教学中存在的主要问题

  根据对商务英语教学现状的分析,笔者认为,商务英语教学的主要问题可以归纳为以下两个方面:

  (1)商务教学精读不“精读”,专业知识一知半解

  什么是“精读”?“精读”不仅仅是对语言表达的推敲,还包括运用商务的专业知识对语言所阐述的场景、问题进行详细的分析解说。然而,很多商务英语精读课堂只做到了第一点。在诸多学者对商务英语教学所存在问题的分析研究中发现,大部分商务英语教师的知识存在局限性。根据调查结果显示,67.8%的商务英语教师是英语专业毕业生,所学的是语言文学,由于教学需要,他们才开始从事商务英语教学,虽有 64%的教师对扩充专业知识投入了许多的精力,仍有 72%的教师对商务专业知识感到困惑,表现出对商务英语教学信心不足。由此可见,教师的知识局限是导致商务英语精读不“精读”的主要原因之一。另外一个导致学生对商务知识一知半解的原因是商务教学的课堂设计。

  众所周知,商务知识的讲解如果只是停留在理论层面上,学生就无法充分理解商务知识的内涵,更谈不上应用了。传统的“翻译+讲解”模式仍然出现在大部分的商务英语课堂,学生在这种模式下学不到或者不能理解根本的商业知识,取得的效果甚微。

  (2)缺乏对学生实际交际能力的熏陶

  虽然商务英语的精读课程也注重口语培养,但培养的目标却渐渐偏离商务而偏向一般英语。由于学生缺乏商务英语词汇,教师普遍感觉开展商务交流很困难,因此,久而久之,没有商务背景的训练培养,学生在商务英语方面的交际交流能力就一直得不到提高,就算毕业之时已经具备了相当的商务词汇水平,却不知道如何在商务场景中应用。

  3 以《新编商务英语精读》为例,阐述文化导向模式在商务英语精读教学中的应用

  商务英语知识广泛而复杂,要培养真正具有商务内涵的大学毕业生,我们可以尝试从文化导入开始。

  所谓文化导向型教学模式,就是指一种将文化融入课堂教学,培养学生自主学习能力与跨文化交际能力的新型教学模式。该模式在教学内容上注重文化概念与思考方式的引入,突出相关文化内容;在教学形式上注重学习主体作用的发挥。徐珂和郝玉荣指出,文化导向型教学模式应用于课堂可分为三个步骤:话题引入、课堂展示、拓展练习。在该模式下,大学英语课堂教学在强调学生听、说、读、写技能培养的同时,还能将中西文化贯穿在教学之中,培养学习者的文化意识,从而更大程度地提升大学英语课堂教学效能,促进学习者在获得英语跨文化交际能力的同时获得跨文化交际意识。那如何将一般英语教学的文化导向模式应用到商务英语教学当中,以达到英语+专业知识的双重目标呢?笔者采用教材《新编商务英语精读2》里面的第十单元“Successful Business(成功的企业)”进行详细说明。言语是文化的载体,而不懂得文化的形式和原则,就不能真正习得言语。

  商务英语教学的实质特性就是经过“英语”这种言语载体传授商务方面的专业学问,学生再经过言语的了解和剖析对其中承载的商务学问以及文化停止消化,然后加以应用。这个过程看似简单,实践操作起来难度却很大,也给教学带来了重重应战。

  (1)话题引入

  Successful Business这个单元的主课文要求通过分析理解“Nokia”的企业文化(Corporate culture),让学生了解决定企业成功的要素是什么。因此,要分析具体的企业文化,必须先了解什么是企业文化。Step 1 笔者通过实际案例引入,设计简单的问题来启发学生思考,这一步骤也是培养学生分析以及逻辑表达的第一步。Step 2 解释企业文化概念,引入企业文化理论框架,讲解企业文化构成要素 。

  (2)课堂展示

  第二部分回归课文的学习,将“精读”落到实处。首先分析Voice From Finland这篇文章的背景知识。通过对芬兰的地理位置、国情俗节以及芬兰人的性格特点的了解,分析芬兰企业“Nokia”的文化背景对企业发展的影响;再回到企业本身,运用企业文化概念的要素来分析Nokia的文化氛围;最后综合归纳总结Nokia以及一般企业成功的具体要素,例如engaging people、creativity、risk-taking等等。

  (3)拓展练习

  了解了商务知识只是第一步,能否应用于实践才是检验学习成果的唯一标准。因此,学习完毕之后,必须进行拓展。笔者倾向于在这一部分培养学生的独立阅读能力、独立分析以及表达能力。因此,最后的课堂设计是布置一篇有关当代企业的案例文章,要求学生运用所学的商务知识去分析该企业的文化,归纳总结该企业成功与否的综合要素,最好能够加上自己对于企业发展的一些想法,以达到发展思维的目的。

  4  结语

  在商务英语教学中,语言教学与文化教学是相辅相成的,应将二者有机地结合起来,把商务文化知识充分贯穿其中,这样才能既培养学生的语言能力,又能培养他们汲取商务知识、应用商务知识适应社会的技能。为了适应新时代对于商务英语专业的能力要求,商务英语教学教师必须加强文化教学意识,努力构建全景式的文化知识理念,有效地强化学生的文化认知能力。

英语翻译论文范文

07
  中国学生译员英汉口译中被动句和关系从句的句法启动效应

  Chapter One Introduction

  Interpreting is a notoriously demanding task. According to Gile (2009)’sTightrope Hypothesis, an interpreter is in most cases working at his/her full capacity orin a state of saturation. In interpreting, interpreters are engaged in listening, analysis,code-switching, retention, speech production along with other activities almostsimultaneously. And all of these take up their mental energy, which “is only availablein limited supply” (Gile 2009: 148). Cognitive psychology has found that our workingmemory, including a processing component and a memory component, is very limited.This has at least two consequences: on the one hand, we cannot remember a largeamout of information within a short period of time; and on the other hand, we cannotdo several tasks well at the same time without sacrificing one or another. Thus ininterpreting it came as no surprise that an interpreter, especially a less experienced one,often finds him/herself in such a situation where he/she tries hard to comprehendincoming information while unfortunately forgetting what has just been comprehended,or he/she succeeds in holding in working memory what has just been comprehended,yet fails to catch up with ongoing input.Furthermore, our processing and memory capacity limitations can have a directimpact on code-switching in interpreting. One consequence this may bring about is thatunder some circumstances we may be unable to restructure the Source Language (SL)into appropriate and conventional Target Language (TL). More specifically, wesometimes do not have enough cognitive resources left to change the sentence structurein an SL into the structure conventional to the TL, but have to repeat that structure.This is known as syntactic priming effect in psychology. This effect may be harmlessin many cases in which the two languages share the same sentence structure, but it mayhave a negative effect on interpreting quality at other times when the two languages arenot on a one-for-one basis. For example, some English passive sentences may well berendered into active sentences in Chinese. For instance, Smoking is forbidden here isbest rendered into an active sentence, such as 这里不准吸烟. But sometimes undertime pressure we do hear 吸烟在这里是被禁止的, which sounds awkward. Anotherinstance is relative clauses. As we know, Chinese is a typical head-final language withrelative clauses preceding the modified noun while English is head-first with relativeclauses following the modified noun (cf. the book [that I bought yesterday] vs. [我昨天买的]书). But in practice we sometimes hear rendition of such sentences asShanghai, of course, is a city that has great meaning in the history of the relationshipbetween the United States and China into 上海当然是一个城市,它在中美两国关系史上具有重要意义, which is less preferable than 上海在美中关系史上是一个具有重大意义的城市.These less preferred interpretations are not uncommon in actual practice, asobserved by interpreting teachers and students alike. But what may be the underlyingcauses for this phenomenon? This thesis assumes that this can be explained bysyntactic priming (or structural priming) effect. Syntactic priming refers to a speaker'stendency to reuse or to repeat the same structure as the one that was previouslyencountered, although there are other structural alternatives to express the samemeaning (Bock 1986). To give an example, Levelt & Kelter (1982) found that Dutchshopkeepers tended to reuse the same structure as that of the question the customerraised. For example, in the following two conversations (in English translations):1) Customer: At what time does your shop close?Shopkeeper:At five o’clock.2) Customer: What time does your shop close?Shopkeeper: Five o’clock.This is a very interesting example. It can be noticed that when sentence structureof the customer’s question changes, the sentence structure of the the shopkeeper’squestion changes accordingly. It can be noticed that there are basically two ways ofasking time (in Dutch as well as in English), one is to put the preposition at thebeginning of the sentence, at what time…, as in 1); alternatively, one can simply saywhat time, as in 2). Although there are two choices for the speaker, he/she will be morelikely (above chance) to choose the one whose syntactic structure is similar to that ofthe sentence just heard. In fact, syntactic priming is not restricted to dailycommunication, but is also observed in writing and in other situations. In addition,syntactic priming is not only observable within one language, it also happenscross-linguistically. For instance, when an English-Chinese bilingual hears a Chinesepassive sentence, he/she is likely to use an English passive sentence in describing ascenario when he/she can use either an active or a passive English sentence. Forexample, when asked to describe a picture which, for example, shows a lighteningstrking a tree, Chinese EFL learners, after hearing a passive sentence such as 大地被白雪覆盖, were found more likely to say the tree is struck by the lightening than alightening strikes the tree (姜琳 2012).The present thesis sets out to explore this issue in students’ interpreting throughlooking at choices or decisions that Chinese student interpreters make in interpretingEnglish passive sentences and relative clauses into Chinese, and tries to explain thepatterns within the framework of syntactic priming. It will generally follow the outlinebelow. In the beginning, the paper will present a brief introduction to passive sentencesand relative clauses in both English and Chinese, including their similarities anddifferences. Next, it will take a quick look at two influential theories in interpretation,namely the Interpretative Theory and Cognitive Effort Model, both of which havetheoretical implications for the topic of syntactic priming in E-C interpreting. Whatfollows is a more detailed review of theories of syntactic priming effect, related researchfindings and existing controversies in this field. On the basis of the literature review,research questions and hypotheses are put forward and then tested in an empirical studyon E-C sight interpreting of passive structures and relative clauses. Results of the studywill then be reported and discussed in details in relation to the research questions.Finally, pedagogical suggestions will be suggested for student interpreters to betterimprove their interpretating skills.

  Chapter Five Conclusion

  The present study, combining qualitative and quantitative research methods,explores Chinese student interpreters’ renditions of English passive structures andrelative clauses in E-C sight interepreting. The results showed that these studentinterpreters tended to preserve the original syntactic structures in interpreting bothEnglish passive sentences and relative clauses, exhibiting strong syntactic primingeffect. Depending on concrete contexts, this strategy could be efficient and effective insome cases, but in other cases this can lead to inappropriate interpreting.The results of the study were basically in support of the hypothesis thatcross-linguistic syntactic priming does occur fairly commonly in E-C sight interpretingof (English) passive structures and relative clauses, although exactly when this effect ismost likely to occur is subject to certain constraints.Now let’s turn to the second research question: can cross-linguistic priming serveas an explanatory framework for the common interpreting strategy of reusing the samesentence structure as in the source language? Again this thesis argues for a positiveanswer to it. This strategy taken unconsciously by interpreters fits well with syntacticpriming effect in speech production. Interpreting is by nature a cognitive andpsychological process. It is “a complex type of bilingual verbal communicativeactivity” (Chernov 2004: 6). Thus theories and hypotheses borrowed from psychologycan provide illuminating insights into the complexities and nuances of interpretingprocesses and help us gain a better and clearer understanding of the many factors atplay in interpreting process.Due to the exploratory nature of the study, all the conclusions are far from beingcut and dried. Admittedly, this study has some limitations. First, although the passagechosen for interpreting was relatively long and contained more passive structures andRCs than many other comparable texts, the total number of target structures was stillvery small. Given more materials and data, a clearer picture may emerge and a betterunderstanding can be gained with more confidence. Secondly, the language proficiencylevel of the student interpreters in this study could be considered advanced amongChinese EFL learners. But they were still a long way from native-like proficiency. Plus,although they’d received one year of professional training, they were generally stillnovice interpreters. Thus whether conclusions drawn here may extend to otherinterpreter groups remains unknown. For example, it could be speculated thatinterpreters of lower language proficiency level might show stronger influence ofcross-linguistic priming in interpreting passives and RCs from English to Chinese dueto their poorer command of sentence structures.The data collected in the present study were open-ended and were analyzedprimarily by non-statistical methods. Qualitative study is often aimed for researchers todevelop hypotheses which can then be tested experimentally by using quantitativemethods. Therefore, the meaning of this study may not be to lay down anyhard-and-fast rules, but to discover some patterns and characteristics and shed somelight on interpreting, especially code-switching. All the conclusions reached in thestudy are waiting to be further tested experimentally under controlled conditions andwith strict designs in future research.Interpreting is a highly demanding cognitive task which involves languagedecoding, short-term memory storage, code switching, and languge production, amongmany other links. Therefore little time and cognitive resouces are available forinterpreters to rapidly make syntactic conversions. This poses a particularly greatchallenge for student interpreters as they are not competent enough in either the sourcelanguage or the target language and they are not experienced enough to adopt the beststrategies under pressure. That’s why it is fairly common to observe their difficulties ininterpreting English passives and RCs into Chinese.The present study also has some pedagogical implications for interpreting training.If the major reason for the interpreter to reuse the same structure in the sourcelanguage indiscriminately is lack of enough cognitive resources, and if we assume thatthe overall volume of cognitive resources are somewhat fixed, then it follows that thissituation can only be improved if other interpreting components (e.g., listening andanalysis, speech production etc. ) consume fewer resources. Thus the key to allowingthe interpreter more cognitive resources to deal with syntanctic conversion is toautomatize other components of interpreting.In daily interpreting training, student interpreters need to take efforts to improvetheir listening comprehension skills so that they can process the source language moreefficiently. In addition, they need to maximize their short-term memory capacity. Thiscan be done in two basic ways: first, they need to enlarge their short-term memoryvolume, and second, they need to improve their ways of encoding message. Only inthis way can they hold in short-term memory more information and process it moreefficiently. At the same time, they need to enhance their speech production ability,through for instance intensive practice and remembering a large number ofprefabricated chunks, so that they can be able to better express their ideas and speakmore at ease. What’s more, improving language proficiency both in the source andtarget languages is always essential, as this is the very foundation for good interpreting.And Interpreting teachers should try to raise students’ awareness of the differencesbetween Chinese and English sentence structures and possible interpreting strategiesthat can be taken, so that student interpreters can conciously make efforts to overcomesyntactic priming effect when this could lead to inaapropriateness.To summarize, in interpreting different components or activities compete witheach other for limited cognitive resources, so successful sentence structure conversionsare possible only when enough cognitive resources are available, or in other wordswhen other components of interpreting consume fewer cognitive resources; therefore,to make successful decisions in choosing appropriate sentence structures, all otherabilities involved in interpreting need to be improved.Future research may collect more materials to increase the research validity.Hopefully a large-scale corpus can be established so that the number of targetsentences can be greatly increased. In additon, different kinds of interpreting can bestudied such as simultaneous interpreting and consecutive interpreting so as to seewhether syntactic priming effect behaves differently in different modes of interpreing.In addtion, more structures can be explored to gain a more comprehensiveunderstanding of the issue. For example, dative alternation and double object arecommon objects in syntactic priming research, which can also be explored ininterperting.

英语专业硕士论文范文

08
  china business study

  Set out the most optimistic and the most pessimistic scenarios for China’s future development, with your evaluation of their relative likelihood.

  I think  the most optimistic scenarios for China’s future develop-ment are as follows:China’s economy continues rapid development,social stability, the happiness of people, in medical it introduces  free medical care system of national. On the one hand, With the continuous development of society, people's income levels continue to improve, people have more money to spend and enjoy life, people's happiness index is on the rise. On the other hand, as our country become more prosperous, our country own ample funds to provide more social welfare for the people, a free medical care system of the whole nation in the true sense is built,  it let people enjoy free medical service after getting sick . China’s development become more internationalization, more and more enterprises to walk out slowly, and began to develop the global business, the number of Chinese Multi-National Corporation is on the rise. More and more people choose to China to learn and exchange, and there are more and more foreign tourists coming to Chinatourism.

  And I think  the most pessimistic scenarios for China’s future development are as follows:China’s economy began to slump, the real estate industry is very depressed, the collapse of the property market, the people's living standards decline, society is very unstable. If China’s social development began to go downhill,a lot of social problems will emerge slowly. The income level of people is in the declining, people's lives are becoming more poverty, People do not have enough money to spend and enjoy life. The real estate market will become very depressed, there is not enough room for people to live, In the city, part of the accommodation is facing great problems, some people even sleep on the streets. People's living standard is in the declining, happiness index is on the decline. At the same time, the society will become unstable, and it often appear the phenomenon of social unrest. China’s education is a problem that worthy of attention, If the social development is not good,  the quality of Education will decline. The government has not enough financial capital into the national education system. This will lead to a decline in the quality of education in  a certain extent, more and more people did not accept the good education, This seriously affected the social progress and development in a certain extent.

  In short, the future development of China mixed progress, The relevant departments should continue to explore in the development and make it progress.

  Advise a European company producing EITHER luxury travel luggage OR sports shoes on how to position itself in the Chinese market.

  Now China is the world’s second largest consumer market for luxury goods, next only to Japan. All in all, China's luxury goods market is expected to grow faster than that of Europe's. So it is a good opportunity for European company to develop their business in China. If European company wants to promote its luxury shoes on Chinese market, it should have an accurate market positioning.

  As Chinese luxury market is different from European’s, so when the European luxury brands enter Chinese market, it cannot use the formal market position. They should choose the target market by combining the specificity of Chinese market and the characteristic of their own products.

  Chinese luxury goods consumers are younger than their European counterparts, belonging to the 18-50 age group, compared to Europe's www.51lunwen.com/yylwfw/ consumers who are generally in the over 40 age group. Many of the young luxury goods buyers are self-employed or professionals. On the other hand, Chinese luxury goods buyers pursue individual character style. So the price should be thought over carefully. Just like what LV has done in China, providing not too much expensive products, making their products available to young people. And choose a Chinese brand ambassador is also a good way to promote their shoes.

  On Chinese market, almost a quarter of luxury goods are used in social contact. Male luxury consumers are much more than female. So the European brand can place emphasis on men’s shoes.

  In China more and more rich people and white-collar workers think that life-style is much more attractive than logo. In the past, they want others know that he is rich, he can consume the luxury products, but now they want to be knew as elegant man. They want to enjoy the whole shopping experiences, the brand culture more than getting a product. So the short shoes brand should focus on high quality and taste, and deliver healthy sports concept that encourage the buyers to do sports.

英语论文怎么写

09
  首先得确定论文的方向,看你是写应用方面的,还是文化之类的。个人偏向于前者,因为我自己选的就是这个方向,比起那些文化的好写多了,也好找资料。这是当时写论文时班长给找的一段资料,你可以参考看看:

  【毕业论文的内容可以涉及语言知识、与语言有关的问题(如,语言教学、文化等)和相关专业的知识和内容(如经济、贸易、管理、市场营销等)。其他内容,须经论文审题小组集体审定。学生有选择的论文内容的自由,指导教师可以提出建议,但不能代替学生做出决定。论文内容要能反映社会和时代特征,具有理论价值或实践意义,有新颖性。论文可以对某个理论问题的探讨,也可以是实践问题的解决。论文不仅要反映学生的综合能力,而且要反映他们对相关问题的较为正确的论述,要有一定的独立见解。论文必须做到主题明确、论据清晰、内容具体而充实,切忌空谈。写翻译的论文,除实例分析外,还要提供原文的译文,以便弄清译论的依据。如果论文是实践性的,它必须提出一定的解决途径、方案。】

  当你选定方向后,可以先把想到题图给带你的老师看看,如果觉得可行,你就得开始找资料,边看边写了,当然再写的过程中,论文的格式是一定一定的注意的,我自己就因为格式问题被老师打回来一次!

  总的来说,论文分三部分:首先是introduction(引言),其次body(正文),最后就是conclusion(结论)了。在引言之前,还有一段abstract(摘要)和key word(关键词),这个不需要写多,大概300左右的样子。在全文后的conclusion(结论)也写完后,需要把你的参考文献一一列出(这块我也有点记不清了,记得这块的格式比较麻烦,不过在老师带你们的时候应该都会讲到的,注意听记好笔记很重要,因为这块有时候老师要求的格式会和你在网上查到的论文格式不一样,我之前就引文这被重打下来修改的),然后最后就是致谢(Acknowledgement)。

  还是附加一段我们班长给的资料:(不过还是一定要多听老师的讲解以及要求哦,格式这块很麻烦的,忘了说,打印有时候也会出现麻烦,最好能到学校里打印论文比较有经验的地方进行最后打印!)

  【论文的格式:

  论文的规格:正文长度 5,500—8,500 单词。

  使用的语言:英语

  论文分题目、引言、正文、参考文献、致谢等部分。

  引文要注明出处。直接引用要加引号,间接引文要以转述的方式出现。然后以括号把引文来源写清楚:(作者名,年份,引文所在页码)

  论文正文部分:

  1、 题目大写,三号字,新时代罗马字,大写下面可写一个附标题,4号字;

  2、 作者名,5号字,班级,学号

  3、 指导教师名,5号字,职称

  4、 摘要:用300词,5号字, 英文一页,中文一页

  5、 关键词:不能用专有名词,词与词之间空四格(或一个Tab键),不加标    点符号

  6、 正文:用5号字, 大部分标题用5号字黑体、小部分、小小部分。大部分 用罗马字,小不  分用一般数字符号:</P><P>引言:引入正题,不超过2段

  I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. X.

  II. 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5 ...

  III. 1.1.1, 1.1.2, 1.1.3/ 2.1.1, 2.1.2, 2.1.3, / 3.1.1. …

  7、结论

  8、参考文献(Bibliography):先英文,后中文,作者名,出版年月,文章名/书刊名,出版社,地点

  9、致谢(Acknowledgement) 】

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