Research on Feminism in Watl Whitman Leaves of Grass 惠特曼的《草叶集》的女性主义解读

  1. Signifiance of this study

  This paper aims to research the famous writer -- Whitman from another perspective—a feminist approach. The author may realize that Whitman is a feminist http://www.51lunwen.com/foreignliterature/ and his work reflects his female readers. Feminist is the most subject of “Leaves of Grass”. The previous researches on Whitman is mainly focused on ego, sex image and democracy, there are less researches from feminist point of view. So this paper is to fill in the blank in the theory, as well as to prove Whitman is a feminist poet.

  2. Theory and practice value of this study

  Whitman sings praise to democracy and freedom, reflecting the American people who desire to democracy, he praises people's creative labor, gives a person with positive spirit. As for the formation of the work characteristics of Whitman, lots of researchers think he is influenced by the literary sages. Longfellow has a great influence on Whitman literary creation. In the Whitman eyes, Longfellow’s poetry gives the birth of the literature mark and plays in the United States on the first century, Whitman definitely refers to Longfellow's poetry achievements and contributions to the people of America. If, Longfellow does not represent the traditional English poetry in the United States, this land has no such impact, Whitman neither won’t succeed. Whitman always directly or indirectly absorbs their nutrition, making himself grow up for a tree, and finally forms his own independent school and tradition. The United States is a young country, different ethnic or religious persecution or avoid for wealth away from his native moved to the new world, the history of the American cultural diversity and the American people dare to abandon innovative spirit. Their lives and culture in total have a kind of chased by the tendency of the new vision habit. After the new vision by wont americans but again especially love to traditional socialist poet of Longfellow, which is the reason for he mainly regards to New England as the theme of the life of the ordinary people with New England daily oral English writing; Secondly, his works are in the artistic conception, contents full of exquisite life and deep feeling left the thinking and imagination space; Thirdly, his works reflect the first half of the nineteenth century American life and the thoughts and feelings of the American people. Longfellow's literary works not only reflect deeply American readers love and spread its literary achievements but also on the behind the creation of the writers. Whitman sings praise to democracy and freedom, reflects the American people whodesire to democracy, he praises people's creative labor, gives a person with positive spirit. Prachanda Rice thinks "one of some scholars put too much emphasis on Emerson to Whitman, while the effect of obvious underestimated, even ignoring the other American writers and English literatures’ influence of the traditional Whitman and Whitman creation; the second is to the contrary, some scholars are tempted to will Whitman and British and American literature tradition completely apart, think Whitman is like Adam, from ancient times and countries for inspiration, the intelligence and energy to the original works, so his poetry has a refreshing original." General Rice considers that the two kinds of views toward the two extremes, its essence is simple to understand the Whitman as a poet of the development process. While there is less research on Whitman’s feminist, so this study aims to fill in the blank of the study.

  3. Research method

  Literature review is the main method. In this literature survey, the resources are mainly focus on the existing observable online Journal articles, books and some relevant document from website. And because of the limited time, the materials used are based on famous journals. These journals are recorded from 1983 to present, publishes academic papers advance the practical and theoretical knowledge of Walt Whitman. The search aim of this literature is to find the existing researches of Walt Whitman.

  4. Outline

  1. Introduction

  1.1 Research significance

  1.2 Literature view

  1.3 Research Method

  1.4 Summary of Walt Whitman and Leaves of Grass

  2. Sex in “Leaves of Grass”

  2.1 Openness of sex

  2.2 Necessity of sex for both men and women

  2.3 Homosexulity

  2.4 Sexual politics

  3. Gender

  3.1 Democracy for female

  3.2 Free Gender

  4. Women’s roles Embodied in “Leaves of Grass”

  4.1 Whitman and women’s rights activity

  4.2 Support women’s rights movement

  4.3 Women’s view on marriage

  5. Conclusion

  6. References

  A Whitman Chronology, by JoatmP.Krieg,University of lowa Press,Iowa City,1998

  A Collective of critical Essays,Edited by Roy Harvey pearce,Prentic-Hall,Inc.,Englewood cliffs,N.J.1962

  Leaves Of Crrass,Edited by Sculley Bradley,W:W:Norton&Company,New York.’London 1973

  Whitman the Political poet, by Betsy Erkkila’Oxford University Press 1989

  Walt Whitman's Native Representations,Edited by Eric Sundquist,Cambridge University Press'1994

  Alearo,MarionWalker.Walt Whitman§Mrs.G.Fai!eigh Dickinson University Press,1991.

  Allen,Gay Wilson and Davis,Charles T.,ed。Walt Whitman Poems.New York:New York University Press,1955.

  Bradley,.Sculley.Leaves of Grass.New York&London:W.W.Norton&Company,1973.

  Eagleton,Mary.Working With Feminist Criticism,Oxford:Blackwell PUblishers Ltd.,1996.

  Erkkila,Betsy.Whitman the PoliticalPoet.Oxford:Oxford University Press,1989.

  Greenspan,Ezra.Walt Whitman.Shanghai:Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press,1995.

  Killingsworth,M.Jimmie.Whitman Poetry of the Body:Sexuality,Politics,and the Text.Chapel Hill:University of North Carolina Press,1989.

  Krieg,Joann P.A Whitman Chronology.Iowa City:University ofIowa Press,1998.

  Kummings,Donald D.Approaches to http://www.51lunwen.com/foreignliterature/ Teaching Whitman's Leaves of Grass.New York:The Modem Language Association ofAmerica,1990.



  The relationship of language skill training and British and American literature teaching of English majors in Guizhou province

  Abstract: British and American literature teaching is the one of the compulsory courses of English professional high grade, is the key of students' comprehensive language skills training. This article from improving the listening, speaking, reading, writing skills to analyze the importance of knowledge, put forward some suggestions of Guizhou university teachers should combine with the Guizhou English majors' English level in British and American literature teaching .

  Key words: British and American literature; English major in Guizhou; integrated language skills

  摘 要:英美文学教学是英语专业高年级的必修课程之一,对英语专业学生的语言综合技能培养非常关键。本文从提高学生英语听、说、读、写四项技能方面分析英美文学知识的重要性,并提出贵州高校教师在进行英美文学教学时应结合贵州英语专业学生的英语水平进行教学的几点建议。


  一、 引言



  二、 英美文学知识对学生四项综合技能的影响


  (一) 英美文学的学习促进学生英语听说技能的提高



  (二) 英美文学的学习促进学生英语阅读理解能力的提高


  (三) 英美文学课可促进学生英语书面交际能力的提升

































  The language characteristics of unfamiliarity of British and American literature

  The language characteristics of unfamiliarity of British and American literature

  Abstract: This paper firstly analyzes the language model of unfamiliarity, analyzes the unfamiliarity development in British and American literature,put forward the language characteristics of unfamiliarity of British and American literature.

  Key words: British and American literature; unfamiliarity; language characteristics

  摘 要:本文首先进行了陌生化语言模式的解析,分析了英美文学中的陌生化发展,提出了英美文学中的陌生化语言特征。














  第二阶段:20世纪20年代——20世纪40年代。这段时间是英美陌生化文学作品的形成阶段,受第一次世界大战的影响,英美文学创作家更深刻地认识到精神世界的空虚和无助,在面对战后的混乱情况,他们再也无法树立生活信心,也无法用语言描绘美好生活和田园景色。因此在残酷的现实面前,只有通过更为虚幻的语言形式来表现内心的空虚和迷乱。因此,这个阶段的陌生化文学作品重点描述人物的主观感受,而不是外部的客观现实。它犹如多棱镜一般折射人的意识领域,使其不断形象化和立体化。它又好象是 X光射线,使读者通过人物的意识屏幕去透视其瞬间的神智活动。同时,这个阶段,陌生化文学理论形成,英美意识流小说家认为:只有把内心世界混乱无序,朦胧的潜意识活动直接显示出来,才能真正揭示其内在的真实。这种创作观点,不可避免地破坏叙述的逻辑性,使叙述更为自由。



  英美陌生化文学作品的发展虽然以跳跃的语言,极度自由化的叙述模式为主,但是其主体内容仍然是反应现实问题。首先,陌生化文学反映了心理现实。从现实主义的角度来说,可以把它看作是上一世纪传统的继承;从心理描写的手法看,则是创作上的新发展。代写论文 英美陌生化文学作品擅长用传统的现实主义方法描绘动荡的社会现实和小镇的风土人情,又能吸收包括意识流技巧在内的现代派手法,细腻地描绘人物的内心世界,对政治与经济冲击下的大城市市民的生活迅速地作出敏感的反应。其次,英美陌生化文学作品反映了社会现实。英美文学陌生化的特征其实表现出了对对现状的不满,而这也正是改革者的动机,也正是反映了人们对生活抱着更加美好的希望和要求。










  Subject:Pay reduction of 5% effective form next month

  Dear Colleagues,

  As you are aware, the recent economy downturn has adversely affected our  company. We have recently had a negative net operating income.We must to be financially responsible and proactive. To that end, I have asked the executive team to review all business goals, objectives and processes in order to find ways to decrease expenses, increase revenue and protect the future well-being of our company.

  In order to increase cash flow and limit layoffs to manage company assets conservatively during this economically challenging time, the executive team has come to a difficult but necessary conclusion. Effective from the next month, all employees will receive a 5% cut to their annual salary. Your current position and duties will remain the same.

  This was an extremely tough decision, and we understand the impact this will have on you and your family. However, please know that we considered several other alternatives, and the choice we made is the best option at this time and will have the least impact on our employees overall. We believe the outcome from this measure will better position the company for a solid financial future.

  During this period, we will continue to monitor the company's financial situation. If the economic situation and the company's performance improves in the next two quarters of the year, your former salary may be restored.

  We appreciate all the hard work www.51lunwen.com/businessenglish/ you have put into your position at this company, and we do not want to lose you as an invaluable employee. Your understanding, support and co-operation to help the this company endure the current economy situation is greatly appreciated. we know we will have your support as we all strive for continued business success. Should you have any questions, please don’t hesitate to speak with your manager or contact human resources.



  1 引言

  商务英语课程里面的精读课程(Intensive Reading)为学生提供了一个商务和英语结合的良好平台。在该课程中,他们既能学到商务相关的应用常识,还能够用英语表达观点和想法。然而,尽管商务专业的综合教学取得了很大的进步,但是商务英语精读课程的教学仍然处于探索阶段。


  2 商务英语精读教学中存在的主要问题



  什么是“精读”?“精读”不仅仅是对语言表达的推敲,还包括运用商务的专业知识对语言所阐述的场景、问题进行详细的分析解说。然而,很多商务英语精读课堂只做到了第一点。在诸多学者对商务英语教学所存在问题的分析研究中发现,大部分商务英语教师的知识存在局限性。根据调查结果显示,67.8%的商务英语教师是英语专业毕业生,所学的是语言文学,由于教学需要,他们才开始从事商务英语教学,虽有 64%的教师对扩充专业知识投入了许多的精力,仍有 72%的教师对商务专业知识感到困惑,表现出对商务英语教学信心不足。由此可见,教师的知识局限是导致商务英语精读不“精读”的主要原因之一。另外一个导致学生对商务知识一知半解的原因是商务教学的课堂设计。




  3 以《新编商务英语精读》为例,阐述文化导向模式在商务英语精读教学中的应用


  所谓文化导向型教学模式,就是指一种将文化融入课堂教学,培养学生自主学习能力与跨文化交际能力的新型教学模式。该模式在教学内容上注重文化概念与思考方式的引入,突出相关文化内容;在教学形式上注重学习主体作用的发挥。徐珂和郝玉荣指出,文化导向型教学模式应用于课堂可分为三个步骤:话题引入、课堂展示、拓展练习。在该模式下,大学英语课堂教学在强调学生听、说、读、写技能培养的同时,还能将中西文化贯穿在教学之中,培养学习者的文化意识,从而更大程度地提升大学英语课堂教学效能,促进学习者在获得英语跨文化交际能力的同时获得跨文化交际意识。那如何将一般英语教学的文化导向模式应用到商务英语教学当中,以达到英语+专业知识的双重目标呢?笔者采用教材《新编商务英语精读2》里面的第十单元“Successful Business(成功的企业)”进行详细说明。言语是文化的载体,而不懂得文化的形式和原则,就不能真正习得言语。



  Successful Business这个单元的主课文要求通过分析理解“Nokia”的企业文化(Corporate culture),让学生了解决定企业成功的要素是什么。因此,要分析具体的企业文化,必须先了解什么是企业文化。Step 1 笔者通过实际案例引入,设计简单的问题来启发学生思考,这一步骤也是培养学生分析以及逻辑表达的第一步。Step 2 解释企业文化概念,引入企业文化理论框架,讲解企业文化构成要素 。


  第二部分回归课文的学习,将“精读”落到实处。首先分析Voice From Finland这篇文章的背景知识。通过对芬兰的地理位置、国情俗节以及芬兰人的性格特点的了解,分析芬兰企业“Nokia”的文化背景对企业发展的影响;再回到企业本身,运用企业文化概念的要素来分析Nokia的文化氛围;最后综合归纳总结Nokia以及一般企业成功的具体要素,例如engaging people、creativity、risk-taking等等。



  4  结语




  Chapter One Introduction

  Interpreting is a notoriously demanding task. According to Gile (2009)’sTightrope Hypothesis, an interpreter is in most cases working at his/her full capacity orin a state of saturation. In interpreting, interpreters are engaged in listening, analysis,code-switching, retention, speech production along with other activities almostsimultaneously. And all of these take up their mental energy, which “is only availablein limited supply” (Gile 2009: 148). Cognitive psychology has found that our workingmemory, including a processing component and a memory component, is very limited.This has at least two consequences: on the one hand, we cannot remember a largeamout of information within a short period of time; and on the other hand, we cannotdo several tasks well at the same time without sacrificing one or another. Thus ininterpreting it came as no surprise that an interpreter, especially a less experienced one,often finds him/herself in such a situation where he/she tries hard to comprehendincoming information while unfortunately forgetting what has just been comprehended,or he/she succeeds in holding in working memory what has just been comprehended,yet fails to catch up with ongoing input.Furthermore, our processing and memory capacity limitations can have a directimpact on code-switching in interpreting. One consequence this may bring about is thatunder some circumstances we may be unable to restructure the Source Language (SL)into appropriate and conventional Target Language (TL). More specifically, wesometimes do not have enough cognitive resources left to change the sentence structurein an SL into the structure conventional to the TL, but have to repeat that structure.This is known as syntactic priming effect in psychology. This effect may be harmlessin many cases in which the two languages share the same sentence structure, but it mayhave a negative effect on interpreting quality at other times when the two languages arenot on a one-for-one basis. For example, some English passive sentences may well berendered into active sentences in Chinese. For instance, Smoking is forbidden here isbest rendered into an active sentence, such as 这里不准吸烟. But sometimes undertime pressure we do hear 吸烟在这里是被禁止的, which sounds awkward. Anotherinstance is relative clauses. As we know, Chinese is a typical head-final language withrelative clauses preceding the modified noun while English is head-first with relativeclauses following the modified noun (cf. the book [that I bought yesterday] vs. [我昨天买的]书). But in practice we sometimes hear rendition of such sentences asShanghai, of course, is a city that has great meaning in the history of the relationshipbetween the United States and China into 上海当然是一个城市,它在中美两国关系史上具有重要意义, which is less preferable than 上海在美中关系史上是一个具有重大意义的城市.These less preferred interpretations are not uncommon in actual practice, asobserved by interpreting teachers and students alike. But what may be the underlyingcauses for this phenomenon? This thesis assumes that this can be explained bysyntactic priming (or structural priming) effect. Syntactic priming refers to a speaker'stendency to reuse or to repeat the same structure as the one that was previouslyencountered, although there are other structural alternatives to express the samemeaning (Bock 1986). To give an example, Levelt & Kelter (1982) found that Dutchshopkeepers tended to reuse the same structure as that of the question the customerraised. For example, in the following two conversations (in English translations):1) Customer: At what time does your shop close?Shopkeeper:At five o’clock.2) Customer: What time does your shop close?Shopkeeper: Five o’clock.This is a very interesting example. It can be noticed that when sentence structureof the customer’s question changes, the sentence structure of the the shopkeeper’squestion changes accordingly. It can be noticed that there are basically two ways ofasking time (in Dutch as well as in English), one is to put the preposition at thebeginning of the sentence, at what time…, as in 1); alternatively, one can simply saywhat time, as in 2). Although there are two choices for the speaker, he/she will be morelikely (above chance) to choose the one whose syntactic structure is similar to that ofthe sentence just heard. In fact, syntactic priming is not restricted to dailycommunication, but is also observed in writing and in other situations. In addition,syntactic priming is not only observable within one language, it also happenscross-linguistically. For instance, when an English-Chinese bilingual hears a Chinesepassive sentence, he/she is likely to use an English passive sentence in describing ascenario when he/she can use either an active or a passive English sentence. Forexample, when asked to describe a picture which, for example, shows a lighteningstrking a tree, Chinese EFL learners, after hearing a passive sentence such as 大地被白雪覆盖, were found more likely to say the tree is struck by the lightening than alightening strikes the tree (姜琳 2012).The present thesis sets out to explore this issue in students’ interpreting throughlooking at choices or decisions that Chinese student interpreters make in interpretingEnglish passive sentences and relative clauses into Chinese, and tries to explain thepatterns within the framework of syntactic priming. It will generally follow the outlinebelow. In the beginning, the paper will present a brief introduction to passive sentencesand relative clauses in both English and Chinese, including their similarities anddifferences. Next, it will take a quick look at two influential theories in interpretation,namely the Interpretative Theory and Cognitive Effort Model, both of which havetheoretical implications for the topic of syntactic priming in E-C interpreting. Whatfollows is a more detailed review of theories of syntactic priming effect, related researchfindings and existing controversies in this field. On the basis of the literature review,research questions and hypotheses are put forward and then tested in an empirical studyon E-C sight interpreting of passive structures and relative clauses. Results of the studywill then be reported and discussed in details in relation to the research questions.Finally, pedagogical suggestions will be suggested for student interpreters to betterimprove their interpretating skills.

  Chapter Five Conclusion

  The present study, combining qualitative and quantitative research methods,explores Chinese student interpreters’ renditions of English passive structures andrelative clauses in E-C sight interepreting. The results showed that these studentinterpreters tended to preserve the original syntactic structures in interpreting bothEnglish passive sentences and relative clauses, exhibiting strong syntactic primingeffect. Depending on concrete contexts, this strategy could be efficient and effective insome cases, but in other cases this can lead to inappropriate interpreting.The results of the study were basically in support of the hypothesis thatcross-linguistic syntactic priming does occur fairly commonly in E-C sight interpretingof (English) passive structures and relative clauses, although exactly when this effect ismost likely to occur is subject to certain constraints.Now let’s turn to the second research question: can cross-linguistic priming serveas an explanatory framework for the common interpreting strategy of reusing the samesentence structure as in the source language? Again this thesis argues for a positiveanswer to it. This strategy taken unconsciously by interpreters fits well with syntacticpriming effect in speech production. Interpreting is by nature a cognitive andpsychological process. It is “a complex type of bilingual verbal communicativeactivity” (Chernov 2004: 6). Thus theories and hypotheses borrowed from psychologycan provide illuminating insights into the complexities and nuances of interpretingprocesses and help us gain a better and clearer understanding of the many factors atplay in interpreting process.Due to the exploratory nature of the study, all the conclusions are far from beingcut and dried. Admittedly, this study has some limitations. First, although the passagechosen for interpreting was relatively long and contained more passive structures andRCs than many other comparable texts, the total number of target structures was stillvery small. Given more materials and data, a clearer picture may emerge and a betterunderstanding can be gained with more confidence. Secondly, the language proficiencylevel of the student interpreters in this study could be considered advanced amongChinese EFL learners. But they were still a long way from native-like proficiency. Plus,although they’d received one year of professional training, they were generally stillnovice interpreters. Thus whether conclusions drawn here may extend to otherinterpreter groups remains unknown. For example, it could be speculated thatinterpreters of lower language proficiency level might show stronger influence ofcross-linguistic priming in interpreting passives and RCs from English to Chinese dueto their poorer command of sentence structures.The data collected in the present study were open-ended and were analyzedprimarily by non-statistical methods. Qualitative study is often aimed for researchers todevelop hypotheses which can then be tested experimentally by using quantitativemethods. Therefore, the meaning of this study may not be to lay down anyhard-and-fast rules, but to discover some patterns and characteristics and shed somelight on interpreting, especially code-switching. All the conclusions reached in thestudy are waiting to be further tested experimentally under controlled conditions andwith strict designs in future research.Interpreting is a highly demanding cognitive task which involves languagedecoding, short-term memory storage, code switching, and languge production, amongmany other links. Therefore little time and cognitive resouces are available forinterpreters to rapidly make syntactic conversions. This poses a particularly greatchallenge for student interpreters as they are not competent enough in either the sourcelanguage or the target language and they are not experienced enough to adopt the beststrategies under pressure. That’s why it is fairly common to observe their difficulties ininterpreting English passives and RCs into Chinese.The present study also has some pedagogical implications for interpreting training.If the major reason for the interpreter to reuse the same structure in the sourcelanguage indiscriminately is lack of enough cognitive resources, and if we assume thatthe overall volume of cognitive resources are somewhat fixed, then it follows that thissituation can only be improved if other interpreting components (e.g., listening andanalysis, speech production etc. ) consume fewer resources. Thus the key to allowingthe interpreter more cognitive resources to deal with syntanctic conversion is toautomatize other components of interpreting.In daily interpreting training, student interpreters need to take efforts to improvetheir listening comprehension skills so that they can process the source language moreefficiently. In addition, they need to maximize their short-term memory capacity. Thiscan be done in two basic ways: first, they need to enlarge their short-term memoryvolume, and second, they need to improve their ways of encoding message. Only inthis way can they hold in short-term memory more information and process it moreefficiently. At the same time, they need to enhance their speech production ability,through for instance intensive practice and remembering a large number ofprefabricated chunks, so that they can be able to better express their ideas and speakmore at ease. What’s more, improving language proficiency both in the source andtarget languages is always essential, as this is the very foundation for good interpreting.And Interpreting teachers should try to raise students’ awareness of the differencesbetween Chinese and English sentence structures and possible interpreting strategiesthat can be taken, so that student interpreters can conciously make efforts to overcomesyntactic priming effect when this could lead to inaapropriateness.To summarize, in interpreting different components or activities compete witheach other for limited cognitive resources, so successful sentence structure conversionsare possible only when enough cognitive resources are available, or in other wordswhen other components of interpreting consume fewer cognitive resources; therefore,to make successful decisions in choosing appropriate sentence structures, all otherabilities involved in interpreting need to be improved.Future research may collect more materials to increase the research validity.Hopefully a large-scale corpus can be established so that the number of targetsentences can be greatly increased. In additon, different kinds of interpreting can bestudied such as simultaneous interpreting and consecutive interpreting so as to seewhether syntactic priming effect behaves differently in different modes of interpreing.In addtion, more structures can be explored to gain a more comprehensiveunderstanding of the issue. For example, dative alternation and double object arecommon objects in syntactic priming research, which can also be explored ininterperting.


  china business study

  Set out the most optimistic and the most pessimistic scenarios for China’s future development, with your evaluation of their relative likelihood.

  I think  the most optimistic scenarios for China’s future develop-ment are as follows:China’s economy continues rapid development,social stability, the happiness of people, in medical it introduces  free medical care system of national. On the one hand, With the continuous development of society, people's income levels continue to improve, people have more money to spend and enjoy life, people's happiness index is on the rise. On the other hand, as our country become more prosperous, our country own ample funds to provide more social welfare for the people, a free medical care system of the whole nation in the true sense is built,  it let people enjoy free medical service after getting sick . China’s development become more internationalization, more and more enterprises to walk out slowly, and began to develop the global business, the number of Chinese Multi-National Corporation is on the rise. More and more people choose to China to learn and exchange, and there are more and more foreign tourists coming to Chinatourism.

  And I think  the most pessimistic scenarios for China’s future development are as follows:China’s economy began to slump, the real estate industry is very depressed, the collapse of the property market, the people's living standards decline, society is very unstable. If China’s social development began to go downhill,a lot of social problems will emerge slowly. The income level of people is in the declining, people's lives are becoming more poverty, People do not have enough money to spend and enjoy life. The real estate market will become very depressed, there is not enough room for people to live, In the city, part of the accommodation is facing great problems, some people even sleep on the streets. People's living standard is in the declining, happiness index is on the decline. At the same time, the society will become unstable, and it often appear the phenomenon of social unrest. China’s education is a problem that worthy of attention, If the social development is not good,  the quality of Education will decline. The government has not enough financial capital into the national education system. This will lead to a decline in the quality of education in  a certain extent, more and more people did not accept the good education, This seriously affected the social progress and development in a certain extent.

  In short, the future development of China mixed progress, The relevant departments should continue to explore in the development and make it progress.

  Advise a European company producing EITHER luxury travel luggage OR sports shoes on how to position itself in the Chinese market.

  Now China is the world’s second largest consumer market for luxury goods, next only to Japan. All in all, China's luxury goods market is expected to grow faster than that of Europe's. So it is a good opportunity for European company to develop their business in China. If European company wants to promote its luxury shoes on Chinese market, it should have an accurate market positioning.

  As Chinese luxury market is different from European’s, so when the European luxury brands enter Chinese market, it cannot use the formal market position. They should choose the target market by combining the specificity of Chinese market and the characteristic of their own products.

  Chinese luxury goods consumers are younger than their European counterparts, belonging to the 18-50 age group, compared to Europe's www.51lunwen.com/yylwfw/ consumers who are generally in the over 40 age group. Many of the young luxury goods buyers are self-employed or professionals. On the other hand, Chinese luxury goods buyers pursue individual character style. So the price should be thought over carefully. Just like what LV has done in China, providing not too much expensive products, making their products available to young people. And choose a Chinese brand ambassador is also a good way to promote their shoes.

  On Chinese market, almost a quarter of luxury goods are used in social contact. Male luxury consumers are much more than female. So the European brand can place emphasis on men’s shoes.

  In China more and more rich people and white-collar workers think that life-style is much more attractive than logo. In the past, they want others know that he is rich, he can consume the luxury products, but now they want to be knew as elegant man. They want to enjoy the whole shopping experiences, the brand culture more than getting a product. So the short shoes brand should focus on high quality and taste, and deliver healthy sports concept that encourage the buyers to do sports.





  总的来说,论文分三部分:首先是introduction(引言),其次body(正文),最后就是conclusion(结论)了。在引言之前,还有一段abstract(摘要)和key word(关键词),这个不需要写多,大概300左右的样子。在全文后的conclusion(结论)也写完后,需要把你的参考文献一一列出(这块我也有点记不清了,记得这块的格式比较麻烦,不过在老师带你们的时候应该都会讲到的,注意听记好笔记很重要,因为这块有时候老师要求的格式会和你在网上查到的论文格式不一样,我之前就引文这被重打下来修改的),然后最后就是致谢(Acknowledgement)。



  论文的规格:正文长度 5,500—8,500 单词。





  1、 题目大写,三号字,新时代罗马字,大写下面可写一个附标题,4号字;

  2、 作者名,5号字,班级,学号

  3、 指导教师名,5号字,职称

  4、 摘要:用300词,5号字, 英文一页,中文一页

  5、 关键词:不能用专有名词,词与词之间空四格(或一个Tab键),不加标    点符号

  6、 正文:用5号字, 大部分标题用5号字黑体、小部分、小小部分。大部分 用罗马字,小不  分用一般数字符号:</P><P>引言:引入正题,不超过2段

  I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. IX. X.

  II. 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5 ...

  III. 1.1.1, 1.1.2, 1.1.3/ 2.1.1, 2.1.2, 2.1.3, / 3.1.1. …



  9、致谢(Acknowledgement) 】